Alchemical processes

1. Ablation
The separation of a component by removing the upper part, sometimes by skimming it off the surface or by wicking it up using a feather or cloth.

2. Albification
The making of the matter in the alchemical work become white.

3. Ablution
The purification of a substance by successive washings with a liquid.

4. Amalgamation
Formation of an amalgam, or alloy, of a metal with mercury. This term is sometimes extended to mean any union of metals.

5. Ascension
When the active or subtle part rises up in the flask, usually by heating.

6. Assation
The reduction of a substance to a dry ash by roasting.

7. Calcination
The breaking down of a substance by fierce heating and burning usually in an open crucible.

8. Cementation
Acting upon a substance by mixing it in layers with a powdered (often corrosive) material, such as lime. This mixture is then be made to react and weld together by heating to a high temperature in a cementing furnace.

9. Ceration
The making of a substance to soften and appear like wax. This is often accomplished by continually adding a liquid and heating.

9a. Cibation
The feeding of the substance being acted upon in a flask, with some reagent, usually a liquid.

10. Cineration
The reduction of a substance to ashes by heating.

11. Circulation
The purification of a substance by a circular distillation in a pelican or closed distillation apparatus. Through heating the liquid component separates, is condensed and descends again to the substance in the flask.

12. Coadunation
Another term for coagulation.

13. Coagulation
The conversion of a thin liquid into a solid mixture through some inner change, as with the curdling of milk. This can be accomplished by a variety of means - by the addition of a substance, by heating or cooling.

14. Coction
The cooking or heating of a substance at a moderate heat for an extended period.

15. Cohobation
The frequent removal of the moist component of a substance by heating. Often the moist component (or some other liquid) is added and the process continued.

16. Colliquation
The conjuction or melting together of two fusible substances.

17. Coloration
Tinging a substance by adding a dye or coloured tincture. Colouring can by either by tinging the whole body or by producing a surface coating.

18. Combustion
The burning of a substance in the open air.

19. Comminution
The reduction of a substance into a powder, either by grinding, pulverising, or forcing it through a sieve.

19a. Commixion or Commixtion
The mixing together of two or more components.

20. Composition
The joining together of two different substances.

21. Conception
The marriage or union of the male and female aspects of substances.

22. Concoction
The cooking or heating of a mixture of substances at a moderate heat for an extended period.

23. Congelation
The conversion of a thin flowing liquid into a congealed thick substance, often by heating.

24. Conglutination
The conversion of a substance into a gluey mass, often by a putrefaction.

25. Conjunction
The joining of two opposite components, often seen as the union of the male and female, the subtle and gross, or even the elements.

26. Contrition
The reduction of a substance into powder only by means of fire.

27. Copulation
A conjunction, or joining of two opposite components, seen through the metaphor of the union of the male and female, or the union of the fixed and the volatile.

28. Corrosion
The eating up of a substance by an acid, alkali or corrosive material.

29. Cribation
The reduction of a substance to a powder by forcing through a sieve or mesh.

30. Crystallization
The formation of crystals out of a solution of the substance usually in water, either by their gradual formation from the liquid, or by evaporation of the liquid.

31. Dealbation
The making of the black substance of the alchemical process become brilliant white.

32. Decoction
The digestion of a substance in the flask without the addition of any other material.

33. Decrepitation
The crackling and splitting apart of substances, for example common salt, on heating.

34. Deliquium
The reduction of a solid placed in a damp place to a liquid by its absorbing water from the air.

35. Descension
When the subtle or active part of a substance is made to go down to the bottom of a flask, rather than ascend as a vapour.

36. Dessication
The drying or removal of all the moisture in a substance.

37. Detonation
The explosive burning of substances on heating, for example substances mixed with nitre.

38. Digestion
The slow modification of a substance by means of a gentle heat.

39. Disintegration
The breaking down or dissociation of a substance into different parts.

40. Dispoliaration
The dissolving or transforming of a dead substance into a liquid.

41. Dissociation
The breaking down or disintegration of a substance into different parts.

42. Dissolution
The dissolving or transforming of a substance into a liquid.

43. Distillation
The separation of a volatile component from a substance by heating so as to drive off the component as a vapour which is condensed and collected in a cooler part of the apparatus.

44. Divapouration
An exhalation of dry vapours from a substance, which can occur at different degrees of heat.

45. Division
The separation of a substance into its elements.

46. Ebullition
An effervescence produced through fermentation.

47. Edulceration
The washing of a salty substance till all the salts are removed.

48. Elaboration
The general term for the process of separating the pure from the impure, and leading a substance towards perfection, which can be done through a variety of means and processes.

49. Elevation
The raising of the subtle parts of a substance upwards, away from the bodily residues, into the upper parts of the vessel.

50. Elixeration
The conversion of a substance into an elixir.

51. Evaporation
The removal of the watery part of a substance by gentle heating, or being left a long time in a dry place.

52. Exaltation
An operation by which a substance is raised into a purer and more perfect nature.

53. Exhalation
The release of a gas or air from a substance.

54. Expression
Extraction of juices by means of a press.

55. Extraction
The preparation of the subtler and purer parts of a substance, usually by macerating it in alcohol. The extract can then be separated from the residue.

56. Fermentation
The rotting of a substance, usually of an organic nature, often accompanied by the release of gas bubbles.

57. Filtration
The process of removing the grosser parts of a substance by passing through a strainer, filter or cloth.

58. Fixation
To make a volatile subject fixed or solid, so that it remains permanently unaffected by fire.

59. Foliation
To make some substances puff up in layers, like leaves lying on top of one another, usually undertaken by heating.

60. Fulmination
The preparation of a fulminate or explosively unstable form of a metal. Sometimes applied to any process in which a sudden eruptive event occurs.

61. Fumigation
The alteration of a substance by exposing it to a corroding smoke.

62. Fusion
The joining of powdered substances together, or the conversion of a substance into a new form, by means of an extremely high degree of heat, sometimes using a flux.

63. Glutination
Turning a substance into a gluey, glutinous mass.

64. Gradation
The gradual purification of a substance, often through a series of stages.

65. Granulation
The reduction of a substance to grains or powder. There are various means of doing this - pounding, grinding, using thermal shock by heating and rapid cooling, and many others.

66. Grinding
The reduction of substances to a powder, usually through the use of a mortar and pestle.

67. Humectation
A process by which humidity is given to the substance, usually not by the direct additon of liquid, but by a gradual process of absorbing moisture.

68. Ignition
The self-calcination of a substance by it burning itself in a crucible.

69. Imbibition
The feeding of a process by the gradual and continuing addition of some substance.

70. Impastation
When the matter undergoing putrefaction thickens or congeals into the consistency of molten black pitch.

71. Impregnation
The alchemical process is sometimes paralleled with the gestation of a child. Thus impregnation follows from the union or copulation of the male and female, and leads to the generation of a new substance.

72. Inceration
The making of a substance into a soft waxy consistency, usually by combining it with water.

73. Incineration
The conversion of a substance to ashes by means of a powerful fire.

74. Incorporation
The mingling of mixed bodies into a conglomerate mass.

75. Ingression
This occurs when substances combine in such a manner that they cannot afterwards be separated.

76. Inhumation
To bury under the earth, sometimes used to mean any process that buries the active substance in a dark earthy material. Also applied to placing a flask in the warm heat of a dung bath.

77. Liquefaction
The turning of a solid material into a liquid, either by melting or dissolving.

78. Lixiviation
The oxidation of sulphide ores by exposing them to air and water. This forms vitriols.

79. Luting
The sealing of a flask or other apparatus through the use of a lute, or resinous paste which once applied sets hard and produces an airtight seal.

80. Maturation
A general term applied to identify the appearance of a degree of perfection in the work.

81. Melting
The reduction of a metal or substance to a liquid through heating.

82. Mortification
Here the substance undergoes a kind of death, usually through a putrefaction, and seems to have been destroyed and its active power lost, but eventually is revived.

83. Multiplication
The operation by which the powder of projection has its power multiplied.

84. Precipitation
The descent of a substance out of a solution. The precipitate descends to the bottom of the flask.

85. Preparation
The process by which superfluous substances are removed from the matter and that which is wanting is added to it.

86. Projection
The throwing of a ferment or tincture onto a substance in order to effect a transformation of the substance.

87. Prolectation
The separation of a substance into a subtle and more coarse part by the thinning or rarefaction of the subtler parts of the substance, rather than the coarsening of the earthy part.

88. Pulverisation
The breaking down of a substance to smaller fragments through being repeatedly struck with a blunt instrument, such as a hammer, or mallet.

89. Purgation
The purging or purifying of a substance by it casting forth a gross part.

90. Putrefaction
The rotting of a substance, often under a prolonged gentle moist heat. Usually the matter becomes black.

91. Quinta Essentia
The making of a quintessence, or highly elevated form of a substance.

92. Rarefaction
The making of a substance extremely subtle or thin and airy.

93. Rectification
The purification of the matter by means of repeated distillations, the distillate being again distilled.

94. Reiteration
The repetition of a process, particularly applied to circular distillation, in which the distillate is returned to the vessel, and the process continued for many cycles.

95. Resolution
This occurs when substances which are mixed together become violently separated by being placed into a solution. Thus milk is in this sense resolved by vinegar. This process is similar to coagulation.

96. Restinction
Here a substance at white heat is brought to perfection by being quenched in an exalting liquid.

97. Reverberation
An ignition or calcination at a high temperature, in a reverberating furnace.

98. Revivification
The bringing of a mortified matter back to life, or reactivating it.

99. Rubification
The making of the matter in the alchemical process from white to red.

100. Segregation
The separation of a composite substance into its parts.

101. Separation
The making of two opposite components separate from each other. Often alternated with the conjunction process.

102. Stratification
An operation which produces layers in the substance in the flask.

103. Subduction
The separation or abstraction downward of the subtle part, as in filtration.

104. Sublimation
This occurs when a solid is heated and gives off a vapour which condenses on the cool upper parts of the vessel as a solid, not going through a liquid phase. An example is sal ammoniac.

105. Subtilation
The separation of the subtle part of a substance from the gross.

105a. Tincture
To tincture is to tinge or colour a substance, or introduce a colour change.

106. Transudation
This occurs if the essence appears to sweat out in drops during a descending distillation.

107. Trituration
The reduction of a substance to a powder, not necessarily by the use of grinding, but by the application of heat.

108. Vitrification
The making of a substance into a glass by strong heating and sometimes the addition of lime.

109. Vitriolification
The making of a vitriol. Most often from a metal by the direct action of oil of vitriol, but sometimes by a more indirect route.

110. Volatilisation
To make a fixed or solid substance volatile.