Alchemy Research Notes archives - July 1998

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RESEARCH NOTES : Woman alchemical writer
From: Adam McLean
Date: 31st July 1998

I just discovered in Allen Debus excellent book on the French Paracelsians, a women 'alchemical' writer unknown to me.

Marie Meurdrac. 'La chymie charitable et facile, en faveur des dames'. Paris, 1656.

She wrote on the practical and medical applications of alchemical knowledge, and her book was later published in Italian (1682) and German (1676).

She was aware that she would be questioned as to what qualifications she had as a woman to write such a text and gave a strong defense:-

"Intellects have nothing to do with sex, and if those women were culivated as those of men, and if one employed as much time and expense in their instruction, they would equal them. Our century has seen women born who yield nothing to the ability and capacity of men in prose, poetry, languages, philosophy and government, even that of the State."

A modern sentiment clearly expressed in the mid seventeenth century!

Adam McLean

RESEARCH NOTES : Anna Maria Laurenzi
Date: Sat, 01 Aug 1998
From: Penny Bayer

It has been suggested to me that there is a sixteenth century Italian woman in the hermetic tradition called Anna Maria Laurenzi. Apparently, I have been told, her brother Alamano Laurenzi published her life in which he described her, in Latin, as an expert in the 'arcanorum naturalium phisicaeque hermeticae'.

I have not been able to locate this reference - it is not in Alamano's poetry book which is the only item by him which I have been able to locate.

There seems to be a good knowledge of Italian alchemy on this network: I would be very interested to know if anyone knows anything about this woman.

Best wishes

Penny Bayer

RESEARCH NOTES : Ars quatuor coronatorum
From: Neil Wynes Morse
Date: Mon, 3 Aug 1998

In response to Adam's request, the following is a listing for the word alchemy/alchemist from the contents' listing of Ars Quatuor Coronartorum vols. 1-109 prepared by Brother Verderso of Denmark.
References are to the volume first and then the page numbers, i.e. 108:156 is volume 108, page 156. Each reference commences with an asterisk. The usual bibliographical usages also apply. I hope that this is useful.
_________________________________
*Alchemist, and the symbolism of stone 106:230

*Alchemists and Scottish `Rosicrucian' in the 15th-C. 106:167

*Alchemists and the Hermetic philosophy 105:158-9

*Alchemy, and the Strict Observance [OS], regulations on (1755), the `mecanicis et commercialibus' and `in chimicis' research, as possible means of income, gold or silver-making, medicine or dye works, and `Chrysopea' 109:29, 45n57

*alchemy, Aristotle's theory 105:157, 158

*alchemy, historical connection to the craft and religion, definition of 99:152

*alchemy, inter alia `Hermeticism and astrology' 107:43, 183, 187n14

*alchemy, symbols of?, on the painting of the `Judgment of Solomon' (Scotland) 106:168-9

*All-Wise Door Keeper (1678) Hermetic Museum, Alchemical connection [RA] 106:157, 258, 259n10

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquarian, init. (1646), (RS) 109:156-60, 162-4, 166n62, 167, 169-71, 176-84; at Masons' Hall London (1682) 186-7; Fasciulus Chemicus (1650) (pseud: James Hassole) 178, 182-3; The Way to Bliss (1658) 184; Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum (1652) 157, 165n14, 183, 187n6

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), F.R.S. (c.1662) (RS), Ashmolean Museum (Oxford), init. (1646) at Warrington (Cheshire) 108:50, 54, 48-79 passim, 60n32; Ed. of `Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum' (1652), unfinished collection of old English alchemical writings in verse 74; Fasciculus Chemicus or Chymical Collections (1650) (under his anagrammatic pseudonym: James Hassole) 74, 74n12; his diary (1649), `I first began to dissect a body' (his works on anatomy) q.25; The Way to Bliss (1658) 74, 74n12

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 107:27, 38, 49, 60, 61, 67-8, 68n3, 69, 71; See also: Rawlinson, Dr. Richard; Memoir of Ashmole (1719) 23, 25

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary, init. (1646) 106:21, 23, 35, 44-5, 58; (RS) (1663) 166

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary, init. (1646) 105:158, 202

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary, init. (1646) 104:222; Royalist Captain! (Lancashire)

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 103:44-6, 104, his diary `Memoirs ... of Elias Ashmole' (1717), [Pamphlet], [EMP] 22, 48, 83, 104-5, 112, 178; initiated (1646) 22, 83, 90, 105, 114, 178

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 102:109-10, 119n35, 206, 208n31; career (to 1646) 226-8, initiation (1646) 102, 109, 202, 222, 207n6, 231-2, 233n15; Theatrum Chymicum Britannicum (1652) 101, 110, 119n34,35 [RA]

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 101:160, 175, 187-8, 191-2, 196; his diary 186-7; initiated (1646) 160, 186, 188, 191

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 100:1, 132-3, 137, 145n20, 146-7, 149; his initiation (1646) 119, 132, 135, 137, 143, 151, 154, 162; his intended history of Freemasonry 153; a Rosicrucian 153; lodge visit (1682) 133, 147, 151, 153, 156, 162; See also: `The Origin of Species - The Freemason' (in AQC vol.108:48-80)

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary and Master Gunner, in `Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.' (Stevenson) (1984) 99:149; his initiation (1646) (Sloane MS. No.3848) and London Lodge visit (1682) 123, 215

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary, Freemason init. (1646), and a Rosicrucian!, founder-member of the Royal Society (1661) (RS) 97:117, 123, 124-6, 130, 131n33, 141, 145-6

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 96:81, 90, 94 bis, 97, 171, 173; his Initiation 77, 170-1; the (1682) meeting 171-2, 179

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 95:137, 153, 155, 157, 159 bis, 165, 166; his Initiation (1646) 81, 87, 111, 113-16, 121-3, 136, 163, 169, 219; the London lodge meeting (1682) 122, 187

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquarian, init. (1646) 94:40

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquarian, init. (1646) 93:221

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquarian, init. (1646) 92:200

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquarian 91:79, 92, 96, 97, 98, 100; his initiation (1646) 91 bis, 100

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary, init. (1646) 90:146, 148, 171, 254

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary and astrologer 89:23, 25-7, 29-30; his diary 23 bis, 28-30; his initiation (1646) 25, 27, 29 bis, 30; his London lodge visit (1682) 27

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), init. (1646), at Warrington 88:67, 78, 83 bis

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), init. (1646) at Warrington 87:29, 205

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), antiquary, init. (1646) 86:284

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), init. (1646), at Warrington 85:222

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), London `Acception' visited by (1682) 82:266, 332; Sloane MS. (1646) [E.b.1.] 265, 293

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692) 81:1, 4; Acception (London) visited by (1682) 5

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), his portrait at Freemason' Hall [UGL], London 79:43; (Josten, Dr. C.H.)

*Elias Ashmole (1617-1692). (1966), reviewed (Carr) 240-49 Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), (Horne, Alex)

*Elias Ashmole 78:83-6

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), in Ambix (1949), `William Backhouse of Swallowfield', by Dr. C.H. Josten, an authority on Ashmole, Ashm. MS.1395, q. 71:47-8

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), init. (1646) at Warrington 69:89-91; recorded his attendance at a `lodge' in Masons' Hall, London Masons' Company `Accepcon' (Acception) (1682) 94

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), (Rogers, Norman) The Lodge of Elias Ashmole (1646), Warrington 65:35-53

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), (Tuckett, J.E.S.) Dr. Richard Rawlinson and the Masonic entries in Elias Ashmole's Diary (1646) 25:237-57

*Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), (Crawley, W.J. Chetwode) The Masonic MSS. in the Bodleian Library. (Sloane MS. Nr.3848), "Elias Ashmole and his diary" (1646) [E.b.1.] 11:4-8 Ashmole's Antiquities of Berkshire (1719), [Pamphlet]; See: Knoop, Douglas, etc., [EMP]

*Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 101:160, 187-8

*Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (Summer Outing, of the Q.C. L.2076) (1927) 40:207

*Frick, Dr. Karl R.H. (Bochum), on the `Oriflamme' by Theodor Reuss (1914) 91:40 Frick, Dr. Karl R.H. (Bochum); Die Erleuchteten (1973) (The Illuminated), (Gnostic-theosophical & alchemical-Rosicrucian secret societies until end of 18th century) 90:81; reviewed (Howe) 260-1

*Great Work, the seven stages in the alchemical (symbol of alchemy) 106:169

*Kircher, Mayer (17th-century), scholar, masonic symbols in illustrated alchemical books, used by James Anderson? 102:101

*Lewis, H. Spencer (d.1939), and son Ralph (d.1987), founder of `The Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis' (AMORC) (1915) (Rosicrucian/alchemist) San Jose (USA) (irregular), his visit to Europe (1909), seeking more information about

*Lindsay, Sir David, Lord Balcarres of (b.1585), renowned Scottish Alchemist & Rosicrucian 106:167-8

*Lindsay, Sophia (daughter of Sir David), marriage to Sir Robert Morey (c.1647) 106:167

*Maier, Michael, (German Rosicrucian alchemist); Atalanta Fugiens, hoc est est Emblemata Nova de Secretis Naturae Chymica (1617) 97:149; illustration of `Alchemy and Geometry' from 128, 134; Themis Aurea, hoc est, de Legibus Fraternitas R.C. (1618) (The Golden Theme, here are the laws of the Brethren of the Rosicrucian) 131n33

*Natter, Lorenz, (Florence), (c.1733), a well-known engraver but also a patent alchemist, effigy of of a Sackville lineage (Master of a Lodge) sculpted by 109:30, 47n73, 60

*Norton, Thomas; The Chemical Teatise (1678), Alchemical connection to [RA] 106:157, 258, 259n1

* Owen, Dr. Alan J., scientist 109:178, 186; on `Freemasonry, Hermetic Thought and the Royal Society of London' 178-9, 179n4

*Owen, Dr. Alan J., scientist 108:78; on Motto of the Royal Arch [RA], and the alchemical Emerald Table of Hermes (in AQC vol.105:155) 74n3; (in AQC vol.106:258) 74n4; on `The Origin of Species - The Freemason' (Sandbach) 73-75

*Owen, Dr. Alan J., scientist, `The Motto of the Royal Arch' [RA] (supplement to AQC vol.105:155-60) 106:257-9

*Owen, Dr. Alan J., scientist, `The Motto of the Royal Arch' [RA], and explanation of Jewel 105:155-60

*Platonist, Hermetic Mystery, (Alchemical Philosophers), Atwood/Wilmshurst/Steiger/Klein 31:56-60; See: Platonist (philosophy followers of Plato, in Cambridge)

*Raven, Ernst Werner von (1727-1787) 109:30-48 passim; former member of Rosa's Clermont Chapter, President of the Templar Chapter of Rostock (1767), succeeded von Schröder, in re-unifying the `clerical' (Starck) and `secular' (Hund) branches [OS] (1767), as `Frater Theodosius a Margarita' in the Clericat, Prior of Chapters in Wismar and Köningsberg (c.1769) 30-33, 34; as `Prior Clericorum' representing the Clerics (Starck) at the Brunswick Convent (1776) 35, 47n80,81, 48n106-7; at the `Gugomos' Wiesbaden Convent (1776) 36; devoted himself to alchemy and ended a Rosicrucian 37

*Rosicrucian, alchemical research into Chrysopea 109:20; by the [OS] (1755) 29; in Germany as rivalry to Strict Observance [OS] (1781) 40

*Sackville, Charles (1710-1769), Earl of Middlesex (later Duke of Dorset) 109:60-1; introduced freemasonry, and the first Lodge at Florence (1733) [PGL], Italy [IFL] 13, 16n29, 30, 47n72; effigy of a Sackville lineage (Master of a Lodge) sculpted by Natter, a wellknown engraver but also a patent alchemist (c.1733) 30, 47n73; Starck's reference to Sackville, the Young Pretender and Count de la Tour du Pin 46n69

*Taylor, F. Sherwood; The Alchemists - Founders of Modern Chemistry (1952) 109:179n1

*Taylor, F. Sherwood; The Alchemists -Founders of Modern Chemistry (1952) 108:74n10

*Taylor, F. Sherwood; TheAlchemists - Founders of Modern Chemistry (1952) 105:155, 160n1

*Vaughan, Rev. Thomas (1622-1666) (`Eugenius Philalethes'), Rosicrucian 109:159, 165n34

*Vaughan, Rev. Thomas (1622-1666) (`Eugenius Philalethes'), translator of `Fama Fraternitatis' (c.1614), (Rosicrucian) (MS.) (c.1633) 106:167, 171n50

*Vaughan, Rev. Thomas (1622-1666) (`Eugenius Philalethes'), Rosicrucian 105:155 Vaughan, Rev. Thomas (1622-1666) (`Eugenius Philalethes'), Rosicrucian & alchemist 99:91

*Vaughan, Rev. Thomas (1622-1666) (`Eugenius Philalethes') 97:130, 145; his translation to English (1652), of Fama & Confessio (c.1614) (Rosicrucian) 123-4

I can undertake similar searches should anyone wish it - given time constrains. [You may contact Neil Morse through Adam McLean].

Neil Wynes Morse


RESEARCH NOTES : Khunrath and the Rosicrucians
From: Adam McLean
Date: 22 July 1998

I have only just noticed that Carlos Gilly in his '500 years of Gnosis in Europe', states that Khunrath was the only alchemist to have been directly attached in the Rosicrucian manifestos, as the

"Amphitheatrical comedian, who knows how to impress the simple minded"

This statement was only included in the early editions, and is omitted in the later editions (and consequently not in the English translation of 1652 published by Thomas Vaughan.)

It seems very interesting to me that the original authors of the Rosicrucian manifestos wished to distance themselves from Khunrath. It is usual to think of Khunrath as a precursor or fore- runner of the Rosicrucians (as does Frances Yates), and it is surprising that the early editions of the manifestos were so critical of Khunrath.

Later editors of the manifestos must have had a change of heart and left out this statement in subsequent editions. Alchemical and Rosicrucian history is not always straightforward! One must always try to go back to the earliest editions and take nothing for granted.

RESEARCH NOTES : Khunrath and the Rosicrucians
From: Adam McLean
Date: 1st August 1998

In an earlier note on the 22nd July I indicated, following Carlos Gilly, that Khunrath was the only alchemist to have been directly attacked in the Rosicrucian manifestos.

Today I discovered in Susannah Akerman's excellent book 'Rose Cross over the Baltic' that this fact was earlier pointed out in 1896 by the world famous mathematician Georg Cantor.

Cantor is a key figure in modern mathematics, being involved in the development of set theory, infinite series and the theory of transfinite numbers. I did not know that he was also interested in hermetic ideas. In 1896 he wrote an article for the first issue of the British Journal 'Baconiana' in which he argued that 'amphitheatreal- ische Histrion und Commediant' mentioned in the Rosicrucian 'Confessio' was Khunrath.

Adam McLean

RESEARCH NOTES : Khunrath and the Rosicrucians
Date: Sun, 16 Aug 1998
From: Paul A. Carpenter

Dear Adam
In chapter 6 of The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross by A.E. Waite (pg.154-5 of my Barnes and Noble reprint and also earlier on pg 63) Khunrath, the Confessio, and Dr. George Cantor and the Amphitheatral Comedian are all discussed. "...Cantor...affirmed that the whole passage was an allusion...to Khunrath, which appears improbable and has no better basis than the connection between Amphitheatralische and the Amphitheatrum of Khunrath's Magnum Opus. The Hermetic theosophist had been dead twelve years (sic) before the Confessio appeared, and I should say that his work had made no particular mark on its period. Dr. Cantor seems to have held that the Confessio was written by Dr. Dee ..."

There is, however, another approach to this puzzle. Lynn Thorndike In his monumental History of Magic & Experimental Science vol vii, pg. 275 says that the title of Khunrath's book would seem to have been copied by [Lucilio] Vanini in his Amphiteatrum aeternae Providentiae divino-magicum christiano-physicum necnon astrologo-catholicum published at Lyon in 1615. This alarming work perhaps called the attention of the censors to the earlier work of Khunrath which was condemned by the Sorbonne and evidently put on the Index Feb. 1, 1625.

Vanini at the age of about thirty-four (Toulouse Feb 9, 1619) "went blithely to die in the arms of Philosophy," denying with his last words the existence either of God or the devil. Vanini's Amphitheater of Eternal Providence seems to be quite behind the times even for his age. In any truly scientific discussion he is apt to choose the worst part and to defend an erroneous against a correct view. He denies that fish breathe. He affirms that one species of plant can be turned into another by the influence of the stars. He holds that birds are generated from driftwood and mice are generated from putrefaction.

By the time of his burning at the stake, Vanini was probably a very famous atheist in Europe. And his atheism was based on occult science and astrology rather than the progress of science which he ignored and apparently had very little interest in.

In Fellowship

Paul A. Carpenter

RESEARCH NOTES : Khunrath and the Rosicrucians
From: Adam McLean
Date: 17th August 1998

Paul A. Carpenter wrote:
>There is, however, another approach to this puzzle. Lynn Thorndike In his
>monumental History of Magic & Experimental Science vol vii, pg. 275 says
>that the title of Khunrath's book would seem to have been copied by
>[Lucilio] Vanini in his Amphiteatrum aeternae Providentiae divino-magicum
>christiano-physicum necnon astrologo-catholicum published at Lyon in 1615.
>This alarming work perhaps called the attention of the censors to the
>earlier work of Khunrath which was condemned by the Sorbonne and evidently
>put on the Index Feb. 1, 1625.

This book is unknown to me. There is a copy in Glasgow University Library. I will try to find time to look at it later this week.

Thanks for drawing this to my attention.

Adam McLean

RESEARCH NOTES : Societa Alchemica Italiana
From: Adam McLean
Date: 5 Aug 1998

While looking at the Pietro Bornia book on the Magical Gate in Rome I noticed that on 25th December 1909 there was founded in Venice the 'Societa Alchemica Italiana', under the direction of Eduardo Frosine. Apparently this organisation published a journal called 'Hermes'.

I have never heard of this organisation, so some questions arise - how long did it survive, were there any important members, did it leave any significant trace on history, any publications by its members?

I wonder if any of the Italian members of this e-mail group, or indeed anyone else who has researched this area, might have some information on this organisation. I would be especially interested to hear of any report on the journal 'Hermes'. If anyone has access to a copy I would appreciate having a photocopy of some pages.

Adam McLean

RESEARCH NOTES : Societa Alchemica Italiana
From: Alvin Evanger
Date: 5th August 1998

Salve .'.

Adam McLean wrote:
>While looking at the Pietro Bornia book on the Magical Gate in Rome
>I noticed that on 25th December 1909 there was founded in Venice the
>'Societa Alchemica Italiana', under the direction of Eduardo Frosine.
>Apparently this organisation published a journal called 'Hermes'.

They were the Italian jurisdiction of the same Alchymical society as that of August Reichel and Francois Jollivet-Castelot. Other well-known members were Eduard Bertholet, Alexander von Bernus, August Strindberg, Carl Willhem Hansen (Ben Kadosch), etc.

>I have never heard of this organisation, so some questions arise -
>how long did it survive, were there any important members, did it
>leave any significant trace on history, any publications by its members?

They were a part of FUDOSI, although im not sure that the Italian branch were equally enthusiastic in it. Frosine was active in the fringe-masonic world of initiations, charters, etc. He co-operated with both Theodor Reuss and Gerard Encausse (Papus). He also chartered people in Denmark (Sjallung & Hansen).

>I wonder if any of the Italian members of this e-mail group, or indeed
>anyone else who has researched this area, might have some
>information on this organisation. I would be especially interested
>to hear of any report on the journal 'Hermes'. If anyone has
>access to a copy I would appreciate having a photocopy of
>some pages.

My hunch is that you should try approching either Serge Caillet or Gerard Galtier about it. If anyone have copies of or knowledge of original documents emenating from this group, it should be them. Especially Gerard Galtier has researched these orders in depth. He writes much about the Alchemy Society and also Frosini. They were all a part of the incredible complex and interesting FUDOSI movements. The book you would want to read is Maconnerie, Egyptienne, Rose-Croix et Neo-Chevalerie (les fils de Cagliostro) ISBN 2.268.00.778.2

Frosini is also mentioned in an online article about the Danish OTO, of which link you can find through my webpage of esoteric links.

sincerely,

Alvin
Frater M.A. FRC

RESEARCH NOTES : Societa Alchemica Italiana
From: Maurizio Nicosia
Date: Thu, 6 Aug 1998

Frosini was a freemason of the Grand Orient of Italy. In 1913 he went out and founded the philosophical Rite, but some years after having completed his own assignment, he went back into the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite. In the Philosophical Rite there also was Arthur Reghini, who knew Guénon and Julius Evola.

Returning to the matter proposed days ago, in Italy there exist different small groups that practise alchemy. Another group of Brothers of Heliopolis also exists and also it derives directly from Canseliet.

My best wishes,

Maurizio Nicosia

RESEARCH NOTES : Terminology
From: Adam McLean
Date: Mon, 10 Aug 1998

I noted in Lawrence Principe book 'The Aspiring Adept' some interesting remarks he makes about the words used to describe alchemy in the 17th century. Principe is of the view that the use of the words such as 'alchymia - alchemy' and 'chemia - chemistry' often give the modern historian a distorted view of this period - as during the 17th century in the time of Boyle and Newton these terms had not separated out in the way they have, certainly since the 19th century, become polarised. Writers in the 17th century could easily use 'chymia' to refer to a definite alchemical idea. He prefers to use the archaic form 'chymistry' to mean the sum total of all alchemical/chemical topics as understood in the 17th century.

He identifies some other words used during this period to refer to alchemy.

'chrysopoeia' - the art of making gold by transmutation

'argyropoeia' - the art of making silver by transmutation

'spagyria' - the art of separating and uniting to purify a substance

'iatrochymia' - medical chemistry especially following Paracelsus

'chemiatria' - an older term for iatrochemistry

It would be interesting to draw up a comprehensive list of such terms used in the literature of alchemy.

Adam McLean

RESEARCH NOTES : Terminology
From: Corey Brand
Date: Mon, 10 Aug 1998

It would seem that the terms "astrology" and "astronomy" suffered the same. In fact, my dictionary describes "astrology" as being the obsolete word for "astronomy".

Corey

RESEARCH NOTES : Volpierre
From: Adam McLean
Date: 25th August 1998

On Sunday I happily found a copy of Frater Albertus' 'Golden Manuscripts' in a local bookstore. I had not previously seen a copy of this. In this book Albertus mentions a twentieth century alchemist who used the pseudomyn 'Volpierre' and whose real name was Nikolaus Burtschell. Her was born in 1892 and died in 1952 (in Mainz). Albertus then prints a translation of an unpublished manuscript by 'Volpierre' entitled 'The Hermetic Art'.

I wonder if anyone has any additional information on this alchemist, other than the summary given in Albertus' 'Golden Manuscripts'.

Adam McLean

RESEARCH NOTES : Volpierre
From: A. M. W. House
Date: Tue, 25 Aug 1998

Dear Adam,

I have come across an author who seems to know Burtschell's work very well and may be worth investigating. His name is Heinz Fischer-Lichtenthal. I have an article translated from German to English by Siegfried G. Karsten. Karsten was (is?) of the Paracelsus Research Society of Australia I believe. The article title is: Reflections About the Philosopher's Stone, A Contemplation about the Transmutation of Matter.

Anthony